The Ancient & Primitive Rites of Memphis & Misraïm

In the early days of the Grand Lodge system and following Ramsay’s Oration, European Freemasonry was plagued by degree fabricators and peddlers. Generally considered clandestine by most Grand Lodges, specifically the UGLE and American Grand Lodges, the Rites of Memphis & Misraïm are seen as clandestine or irregular as it claims jurisdiction over Ancient Craft Masonry and was seen by many as spurious at best, and nothing more than a money-making scheme to dupe title seekers out of money.. The Rites of Memphis & Misraïm are no longer worked by legitimate American Freemasons but are now under the jurisdiction of the Grand College of Rites. These rites are worked in a few countries like Bulgaria, Italy, Romania, and the Dominican Republic. Prior to 1881, these rites were separated and the Rite of Misraïm is older, but by the efforts of the renowned Italian patriot, Giuseppe Garibaldi, the two were merged together.